Melihat Fenomena Ekstrimisme Pada Pekerja Migran melalui “Pengantin”

Rekomendasi Film

Melihat Fenomena Ekstrimisme Pada Pekerja Migran melalui “Pengantin”

Migrant Care, salah satu Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat yang berletak di Jakarta Selatan mengadakan diskusi film terkait Buruh Migran Perempuan Indonesia yang menjadi target yang sangat rentan terkena paham radikal oleh kelompok ekstrimisme. Film yang diberi judul Pengantin ini, merupakan hasil karya dari Noor Huda Ismail yang menceritakan kerentanan buruh migran perempuan dalam paham ekstrimisme. Dalam film tersebut, penonton dapat melihat adanya interaksi secara langsung antara reporter dengan sang “Pengantin”.

Interaksi tersebut berhasil memberikan gambaran terhadap penonton, bagaimana pekerja migran perempuan menjadi rentan terhadap isu terkait ekstrimisme, bagaimana awal mula mereka ditarik kedalam paham ekstrimisme dan pada akhirnya menjadi seorang “Pengantin”, bahkan, dalam film ini penonton ditunjukkan bahwa terlepas dari sang “Pengantin” menganut paham ekstrimisme, mereka masih seorang perempuan  pada umumnya, bagaimana pada akhirnya kasus ini berdampak pada keluarga “Pengantin”, dan yang paling penting adalah, bagaimana teknologi dan media sosial memiliki peran besar dalam penyebaran paham ekstrimisme.

Rizky Nurul sekalu Content Manager dari memaparkan kisah dua Pengantin, Ika dan Dian yang saat ini sedang menjalankan masa tahanan. Dalam interaksi yang dilakukan oleh Rizky Nurul dengan kedua Pengantin, dapat ditarik kesimpulan bahwa media sosial memiliki peran yang besar dalam terjunnya kedua buruh migran tersebut kedalam kelompok ekstrimisme. Ika, berawal dari keinginannya untuk mempelajari dan memahami agam Islam lebih dalam melalui bantuan media sosial, sedangkan Dian, bertemu dengan suaminya melalui temannya yang juga merupakan kelompok ekstrimisme, pada akhirnya ditarik dan dijadikan sebagai penggalang dana untuk kelompok tersebut.

Rizky Nurul sendiri juga menegaskan, terlepas dari paham ekstrimisme yang dianut oleh Ika dan Dian, mereka berdua masih seorang perempuan pada umumnya, yang tertarik dengan makeup dan lain sebagainya. Dalam film tersebut penonton ditunjukkan dampak terhadap keluarga dari perempuan yang ditarik kedalam paham ekstrimisme, seperti Ibu dari Dian dan Bude dari Ika, bagaimana kedua keluarga pelaku menjadi tulang punggung keluarga setelah penangkapan terjadi.

Dalam diskusi setelah film berakhir, Rizky Nurul menjelaskan bahwa buruh migran perempuan Indonesia rentan terhadap paham ekstrimisme, karena mereka seringkali kurang mampu untuk menyaring setiap informasi dan pengetahuan yang mereka dapat dari media sosial. Mudahnya akses dalam media sosial pun telah dimanfaatkan oleh kelompok ekstrimisme terlebih dahulu dari pada kelompok pro perdamaian, pendekatan yang dilakukan oleh kelompok ekstrimisme sendiri lebih mudah untuk diterima oleh individu-individu yang rentan oleh isu tersebut. Rizky menegaskan, berbeda dengan pendekatan oleh pemerintah yang dilakukan di media sosial, yang tidak mudah untuk diterima oleh masyarakat. Selain itu, Rizky juga menghimbau penonton untuk lebih wasapada terhadap konten-konten di media sosial yang mengandung isu ekstrimisme.

Artikel ditulis oleh Rachma Setianingrum, Mahasiswa Hubungan Internasional, 2015, Universitas Pembangunan Nasional “Veteran” Jawa Timur, Surabaya, Indonesia yang sedang melakukan internship di Human Rights Working Group (HRWG).

From Immigration to Integration

Beneath the glitzy, modern towers of central Jakarta, with the sun reflecting its heat upon the ground, a handful of tents are perched on the side of the road, right next to the UNHCR building in Kebon Sirih. These tents however are not temporary; these have been the permanent homes for many refugees stranded in Jakarta.

Mahmood is a 40-year-old Afghani refugee who have resided in Indonesia for over 5 years. Out of fear of being persecuted, he ran away from his home, leaving his wife and 8 kids, searching for a safe place to call home. $8000 was how much he paid the people smugglers to get him out of Afghanistan.

His journey is difficult and rough to say the least, and far from over. In 2013 he left Afghanistan in the hopes of coming to Australia. He first went to India for 12 days, then Malaysia for 4 days, and then he took a boat to Medan, and then to Jakarta. Here, he registered his name to UNHCR, before making his way to Australia.

“In the past, in January 2014, I came to Australia by boat. Then 12 days with the immigration, border protection of Australia in the big boat. After that they send me back to Jakarta, in the orange boat. My boat was demolished,” he said.

Australia has a policy of returning boats carrying refugees before it reaches its shore. In the process, boats carrying refugees are intercepted by Australia’s border force before entering Australia’s water, then refugees are ultimately transferred into a small, cramped, and dingy orange boats to be sent back to Java. Mahmood fell victim to Australia’s petty politics of the gambling of refugees’ lives in returns for popularity with its electorates. He was officially deemed a refugee by UNHCR 20 months after he first registered.

“I’m hopeless now,” he said when asked of what hopes he has.

Mahmood is just one case in many of refugees who are stuck in transit countries, in danger of returning back to their homes yet unable to go their intended destinations. In Southeast Asia alone, countries such as Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia have been the host of many refugees from Somalia, to Rohingya to Afghanistan among others.

Human Rights Working Group (HRWG) and Adeline met Mahmood and other Refugees last year to celebrate Christmas.

The problem however is that refugees in these countries ultimately have no rights. As neither Thailand, Malaysia nor Indonesia have signed or ratified the 1951 United Nations Convention on Refugee Rights, they therefore have no rights in being there, nor have any rights to citizenship. They are not only living in poor conditions, but unable to receive education or proper health care, unable to work and risk being deported due to their legal status as being “illegal aliens.” As the world is becoming increasingly isolationist, the case of refugees being stuck in transit countries will only rise.

Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia claims that despite not a party to the Refugee Convention, they would provide minimal protection to refugees, including adherence to non-refoulement principle on humanitarian grounds. Yet this is promise is fragile to political changes, and does not insure refugees proper living conditions.

While the Association of Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN) has a body to protect human rights, their refugee protection mandate remains weak. It is therefore necessary for states within ASEAN to ratify the Refugee Convention to assure some rights to refugees and for the region to cooperate in creating a plan of action for the protection of refugees. But more importantly, it is necessary to tackle the original reasons that cause people to flee their home. In an era where states are increasingly becoming more isolationist in a more globalised world, it is no longer possible to simply turn a blind eye against conflict that can cause an influx of people to flee their homes. Origin, transit and destination countries are responsible for protecting the rights of refugees.

In the wake of the International day of Human Rights, Mahmood’s case reminds us of the plight of those who are persecuted and risked their lives in the hopes of finding a better place to live. In the spirit of ‘gotong royong,’ we must remember that help is also needed for those who are not a citizen and who is simply looking for safety.


This article is written by Adeline Tinessia. Adeline has been intern at HRWG for the past couple of months. She is studying a bachelors of International Security Studies, taking a focus on Southeast Asia and specifically on Indonesia.